At this point, you’re probably familiar with most eye conditions as we like to educate our readers on different eye diseases and disorders. But, there are certain eye conditions (real) that are so rare that even the internet does not have much information about them.
Today, let’s talk about one such bizarre condition called Polycoria.It’s one of the rarest eye disorders of all time, wherein a person has two or more pupils in one eye.
Is it possible? How do the eyes work? And what does it look like?
How is such a condition possible? How do the eyes work? And what does the condition look like? If you have all these questions in your mind, I’ll answer each one of them as we move further in this blog. So, stick by!
What is polycoria?
If you think that eye conditions only include nearsightedness or presbyopia that can be corrected by using prescription glasses, you don’t know it all.
Polycoria is an eye condition where your eyes have two or more pupils instead of one. This could happen in one or both of your eyes and the condition typically starts to develop during childhood but isn’t diagnosed until later in life. No matter how absurd this thing sounds, it’s real. The eye condition is extremely rare and is often mistaken for other conditions.
No matter how absurd this thing sounds, it’s real. It is extremely rare and is often mistaken for other conditions. There are two types of Polycoria:
True polycoria is when you do have two or more pupils in the same eye. Each of the pupils have a separate intact sphincter muscle that makes the pupil constrict or dilate based on the light your eye is exposed to.
People who have this condition experience many visual limitations. Not only this, but the retina might also stimulate in response to bright lights.
False, or pseudopolycoria is less rare than true polycoria but looks similar to the former. Simply put, people with Pseudopolycoria seem to have two or more pupils in one eye. But, in this case, the pupils don’t have separate sphincter muscles and can’t act independently.
These extra pupils are nothing but the holes in your iris. As this condition is just an imperfection of the iris, people with pseudopolycoria don’t experience any vision problems.
What causes polycoria?
Polycoria is a congenital condition and IS usually not diagnosed until adulthood. There have been Polycoria cases diagnosed from the age of 3 to adulthood. The prevalence of true Polycoria is quite uncommon. Typically, Polycoria is associated with certain eye conditions of uneven pupils, such as -
- Detached retina
- Polar cataracts
- Abnormal development of the eye
- Abnormal development of the pupils
- A bridge between pupils consisting of iris tissues
As it is obvious by now, Polycoria is a very rare eye disorder. So, it is difficult to determine the actual cause. Hence, regular eye tests are important for children. Get a free eye test for your children or yourself from Specscart and keep track of your eye health. Detect eye problems before they turn into a threat to your vision.
Polycoria’s Effects on Vision
Polycoria has several effects on a person’s vision. Some of the usual ones include blurred vision, poor vision, difficulties from the glares of light, etc. Such effects or complications arise because Polycoria reduces the functionality of the iris and the pupil. On the other hand, Pseudopolycoria or False Polycoria might be a manifestation of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome.
In simple words, we can understand Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome as a genetic eye condition that affects the eyes. Individuals inflicted by this condition may display False Polycoria, which manifests as extra holes in the iris that resemble multiple pupils or a single pupil that is not at the centre.
In addition, another rare eye condition known as Iridocorneal endothelial (ICE) syndrome is often associated with Polycoria. It is an eye disorder that can result in the distortion of the iris and pupil, and may lead to Polycoria. Patients with ICE often develop secondary glaucoma. Moreover, the symptoms of ICE syndrome is common in women and patients between the age of 20 to 50.
Symptoms of polycoria
Symptoms of polycoria usually include having more iris muscles than normal. Iris is the ring around the pupil that determines your eye colour. It also controls the amount of light that reaches your eyes.
In polycoria, the pupils are smaller than usual and each one of them has its iris. While all of the irises adjust light, it could dim your vision by reducing the amount of light that enters your eye.
The most common symptom of polycoria is the appearance of two or more pupils in one eye. But, there could be other signs such as:
- Blurred vision in the eye with polycoria
- Dim or double vision
- The oblong shape of the extra pupils
- Excessive glaring
Treatment for polycoria
People with pseudopolycoria don’t require any treatment as their vision isn’t affected by this condition. Those who experience vision difficulties due to this condition must seek immediate medical treatment.
Surgery is one treatment method for polycoria. But, since this problem is so rare, it could be pretty hard to determine the best form of treatment for this condition.
The surgery for polycoria is known as pupilloplasty where the surgeon cuts the bridge between the pupils. However, there are not sufficient cases or evidence to determine whether this procedure is safe for everyone.
More research and trials are needed to prove the effectiveness of pupilloplasty for every person suffering from this condition. And since the number of cases is so limited, there’s just not enough data to determine the success rate of pupilloplasty.
Frequently Asked Questions
Can someone with Polycoria see?
Ans. False or Pseudopolycoria, usually, does not cause any vision distortion and the patient can see normally. But, in certain cases of True Polycoria, an individual’s vision may be blurred or poor because of the less effective iris and pupil.
How rare is Polycoria?
Ans. Polycoria is an extremely rare eye disorder. Besides, True Polycoria is even more uncommon and unheard of than False or Pseudopolycoria.
Is Polycoria dangerous?
Ans.Polycoria is not a very dangerous eye condition under typical circumstances. You may not even need any treatment if your visual impairment is minimal and does not interfere with your everyday life. But, in certain severe cases, Pupilloplasty might be needed.
A patient with polycoria won’t need any treatment until the condition is affecting their vision and interfering with their daily life.
Pupilloplasty has shown positive results for everyone who got it. If you have this rare eye condition, make sure you visit your eye doctor regularly for routine eye check-ups. Having regular eye tests is also crucial to your overall eye health as well.